The Future of Education

Edition 14

Accepted Abstracts

The «Learning Layers»: The Levels of Reflection of Elementary and Secondary School Students on the Explicit Teaching of a Self-Regulation Strategy

Paula Paulino, Lusófona University, HEI‐Lab: Digital Human‐Environment Interaction Labs, Lisbon, Portugal / Center for Research on Psychological Science, Faculty of Psychology of the University of Lisbon, Portugal (Portugal)

Ana Margarida Veiga Simão, Center for Research on Psychological Science, Faculty of Psychology of the University of Lisbon (Portugal)

Alzira Matias, Faculty of Psychology of the University of Lisbon (Portugal)


The use of metacognitive strategies in learning contexts has been shown to be highly effective for school success. The present study focuses on the self-reflections made by students after the explicit teaching of the Mental Contrast with Implementation Intentions (MCII) strategy, theoretically framed in Self-Regulated Learning. The MCII strategy combines the benefits of two metacognitive procedures: mental contrast, with the aim of mentally confronting positive aspects of the future (goals to be achieved) and negative aspects of the present (reality factors considered obstacles to achieving these goals), and implementation intentions, which guide behaviours towards goals through "if/then" plans (e.g., if X comes up then I do Y). The MCII strategy was explicitly taught and implemented in a systemic context of Natural Sciences (28 7th grade students) and Biology and Geology (28 10th grade students) in the context of Portuguese public education.  The thematic analysis was based on the "Onion Model" (Korthagen & Vasalos, 2005) which conceptualizes different levels of teacher reflection in their educational practice—of increasing depth—similar to the layers of an onion. With the application of this model to the students' reflections, five axes or dimensions of reflection emerged: findings, justification considerations, intentions, implementations, and missions, which allowed grouping, in increasing order of reflexive sophistication, the descriptors produced by the participating students. Results and implications for research and intervention in educational contexts are discussed.


Metacognitive strategies, Self-regulated Learning, Students reflections, Middle and secondary school



[1] Korthagen, F. & Vasalos, A. (2005). Levels in reflection: Core reflection as a means to enhance  professional  development. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and  Practice,11(1), 47-71.


Back to the list


Reserved area

Media Partners:

Click BrownWalker Press logo for the International Academic and Industry Conference Event Calendar announcing scientific, academic and industry gatherings, online events, call for papers and journal articles
Pixel - Via Luigi Lanzi 12 - 50134 Firenze (FI) - VAT IT 05118710481
    Copyright © 2024 - All rights reserved

Privacy Policy