The Future of Education

Edition 14

Accepted Abstracts

Bullying Behavior in Non-Formal Education through Sport: Does the Problem Exist?

Vilija Bitė Fominienė, Lithuanian Sports University (Lithuania)

Milda Treigiene, Lithuanian Sports University (Lithuania)


Non-formal education is an organized activity, with a learning goal in mind, that occurs outside of the formal education system. It is defined by the creation of more flexible educational environments, the development of more caring and less hierarchical interactions, and the goal of meeting the needs of participants [1]. Sport programmes are a popular form of non-formal education, often used to provide a young person with physical, social, emotional, cognitive benefits and improve pupils’ personhood. However, sport, as a reflection of society, can, like any other social activity, have a number of negative consequences. One of them, especially evident in formal education, is bullying behavior among students [2]. In this context, the aim is to analyses research findings related to the expression of bullying in non-formal education through sport. This analysis is prepared by using the methods of analysis, interpretation and generalization of scientific literature on the topic of the research. Results and conclusion. The results of the studies revealed that students participating in non-formal education through sport are not protected from encountering bullying victimization. Although the lack of such studies is noted [3], the results of published studies show a different prevalence of bullying victimization depending on the cultural context, sport type, age or gender of the students. The various consequences of bullying for the health, careers and well-being of those who experience it are also noted. Therefore, the problem of bullying remains relevant, requiring ongoing research and the search for effective prevention programs. This issue is exacerbated by the fact that any lessons learned through sports are inherently transferable to the rest of one's life [4].

Keywords Non-formal education, sport, bullying


[1] Romi, S., & Schmida, M. (2009). Non‐formal education: A major educational force in the postmodern era. Cambridge Journal of Education39(2), 257-273.

[2] Al-Ali, N. M., & Shattnawi, K. K. (2018). Bullying in school. In Health and academic achievement, (p. 47-58). IntechOpen.

[3] Evans, B., Adler, A., MacDonald, D., & Côté, J. (2016). Bullying victimization and perpetration among adolescent sport teammates. Pediatric exercise science28(2), 296-303.

[4] Haudenhuyse, R. P., Theeboom, M., & Skille, E. A. (2014). Towards understanding the potential of sports-based practices for socially vulnerable youth. Sport in Society17(2), 139-156.


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