Innovation in Language Learning

Edition 17

Accepted Abstracts

Design Exercises to Balance Input and Output in K-12 Classroom

Yun Zhu, St. Catherine’s School (United States)


Based on Input Hypothesis and Output Hypothesis, the author discusses how to design exercises /tasks in k-12 classroom to achieve students’ proficiency level of the target language and communicative competence in four levels: linguistic, sociolinguistic, discourse, and strategic competence. The author will explain the process of designing exercises by giving an example of how to teach the topic “sick”. That is, how to design a serious of exercises that are appropriate for students’ language level. The exercises will cover linguistic (lexical, structural, etc.), discourse, and ultimately, real life perspectives of learning and practicing Chinese. Through the illustration, the participants will get to understand how to design graded exercises to promote students’ Chinese language acquisition process by taking account 1. teacher’s pedagogical tasks 2. students’ developmental state and skill level and 3. social contexts of the second-language learning environment. Participants will develop skills on: 1. how to increase students’ discourse output  (not simply sentential output); 2. how to set up certain lexical and structural complexity as practice condition; 3. how teachers create scaffolding practices; 4. how to prepare practices from mechanical drilling to connecting to real world experience. The author will use PPT to show illustrate: some theoretical basis and then show a detailed process of how to scaffolding students to achieve their language proficiency and communicative competence. 

Keywords: Input, Output, Graded Exercises.

[1] Krashen, Stephen (1977). "Some issues relating to the monitor model". In Brown, H; Yorio, Carlos; Crymes, Ruth (eds.). Teaching and learning English as a Second Language.
[2] Krashen, S.D. (1982). Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition (PDF). Oxford: Pergamon.
[3] Postman, Robert (2015). Barron's NYSTCE: EAS, ALST, Multi-Subject CST, Overview of the edTPA (4th ed.).

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