Innovation in Language Learning

Edition 17

Accepted Abstracts

Factors Affecting English Language Literacy in Rural Primary Schools of Karachi, Pakistan

Huma Akram, Northeast Normal University (China)

Naseer Ahmad, Northeast Normal University (China)

Yang Yingxiu, Northeast Normal University (China)


National Education Policy Pakistan, 1998-2010 set the goal of elimination of illiteracy by providing basic education to all by 2015. But still, Pakistan is lagging behind to achieve this goal, particularly in the English subject. Moreover, again, a big difference is found between urban and rural areas of the country and 70% population of the country belongs to rural areas. Therefore there was a dire need for finding the causes and suggesting ways to cope up with low English literacy among students of rural primary schools. Statistics revealed Sindh province again found at the least position in terms of English literacy i.e. 52.3% (ASER, 2018). Therefore this study was conducted in the rural areas of Karachi, Sindh to examine the factors affecting English language literacy. By employing qualitative design twelve primary school teachers (8 females and 4 males) were selected through convenient sampling. Data was collected through face-to-face semi-structured interviews and classroom observations. All the interviews were voice recorded and transcribed precisely and analyzed through thematic analysis method. The findings of the study revealed various reasons that are responsible for low literacy that includes, the weak background of English knowledge, lengthy course outline, Insufficient duration of classes, limited resources, crowded and multilingual classes, shortage of English teachers, Lack of parents' interest and inadequate teachers' training.

Keywords: English language literacy, factors, rural primary schools.

[1] Annual Status of Education Report Pakistan, 2018
[2] Ministry of Education. (2009). National education policy, Islamabad: Government of Pakistan. Accessed at

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