Innovation in Language Learning

Edition 16

Accepted Abstracts

Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) and Online Curriculum Integration Readiness in a Higher Education Context

Nouf Jazaa Aljohani, Jeddah University (Saudi Arabia)


According to the Saudi Ministry of Education (2020), online education is expected to become the primary means of teaching and learning in the post-pandemic world. However, ‘the faculty in various universities in Saudi Arabia lack the basic knowledge needed for e-learning’ (Al-Asmari & Khan, 2014, p. 8). Furthermore, few studies have examined whether Saudi teachers have the necessary pedagogical knowledge to implement digital curricula. The present study aimed to address this gap by examining whether Saudi teachers possess the three dimensions of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK)—technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK), technological content knowledge (TCK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK)—as well as by assessing their competences in the implementation, facilitation and assessment of online curricula.  Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from 350 in-service teachers from humanities departments at four Saudi universities. A quantitative online survey was administered to assess teachers’ online curriculum integration readiness in higher education systems. In addition, 20 semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted to explore factors affecting the teachers’ self-efficacy. The findings showed low competencies in online curriculum integration. The main challenges to attaining a high level of curriculum integration included a lack of online learning and teaching policies, regulations, curriculum guidelines, e-learning pedagogical approaches and strategies and teacher training. The study implications include valuable information about designing and delivering digital content, which can be useful for various Saudi education sector stakeholders, such as online curriculum developers and policymakers. 

Keywords: TPACK, curriculum developers, policymakers, online curriculum integration, teachers’ competencies. 


  • Al-Asmari, M., & Khan, R. (2014). E-learning in Saudi Arabia: Past, present and future. Near and Middle Eastern Journal of Research in Education, 2014(1), 2-11

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