Innovation in Language Learning

Edition 16

Accepted Abstracts

Input Revisited: A Case Study on the Importance of Enhanced Input and Output on the Acquisition of L2 French Tenses

Rabia Redouane, World Languages and Cultures Department Montclair State University (United States)


One of the prevalent theoretical perspectives that has evolved from decades of research in SLA is that access to comprehensible input (CI) is the necessary factor for learners’ acquisition of a second language (L2). Krashen’s (1985) proposition of ‘Comprehensible Input Hypothesis’, which advances that language learning only happens when learners receive CI subjugated ideas about language learning. While the arguments conveyed by the Input Hypothesis were to be maintained with respect to language acquisition and learning, its impact on the acquisition of the target language was limited. Recent on SLA research tries to outdo this interest to the need for and seeks to obtain a clear-cut understanding of how learners process, or interact with input to develop their interlanguage competence. The claim is that learners must not only be put in a position of receiving CI, but also in a position of noticing linguistic features and of “being able to negotiate the new input, thereby ensuring that the language in which it is heard is modified to exactly the level of comprehensibility they can manage” (Long & Porter, 1985, p .214). The importance of learners’ noticing and attention called subsequently for pedagogical approaches that advance that some form of attention is crucial in promoting further processing and noticing of grammatical information on the part of the learner. One significant pedagogical suggestion is “input enhancement” defined by Leow (1997) “as attempts to draw L2 learner’s attention to targeted forms in the input by highlighting or making salient these forms through the use of typographic manipulation.” (p.167)
This paper investigates the role of both enhanced input and learner output on the noticing and acquisition of the French past tenses in producing an oral story using both targeted grammatical structures. Specifically, a classroom-based study will aim to demonstrate whether L2 French learners who are given story with enhanced French past forms and an opportunity to work in pairs will exhibit more learning of the two forms, reflect on their linguistic gap and problems, raise their awareness, and express themselves (output) in a communicative activity of restricting orally the same story than learners without the benefit of such opportunities. Based on the findings of the study, pedagogical implication and recommendations will be offered.

Keywords: Enhanced input,  Output hypothesis, Attention and noticing, L2 production.


  • Krashen, S. (1985. The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. London:Longman
  • Leow, R. (1997). The effect of input enhancement and text length on adult L2 readers’ comprehension and intake in second language acquisition. Applied Language Learning 8, 151-182
  • Long, M.H. & Porter, P.A. (1985). Group work, interlanguage talk and second language acquisition. TESOL Quarterly, 19(2), 207-28
  • Schmidt, R.(1990). The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11,206-226

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